Sixty Symbols - Physics and Astronomy videos

Apprenticeships are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines.

A graphical image that represents a person, as on the Internet.

Information and Technical Assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act:
A general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness; skills become automatic after extended periods of training with practice and good instruction.

Source: Flickr Creative Commons license, image by Mark Wallace

For more information about tefillin or to purchase valid tefillin online, visit the  website.
Today, the teacher is assessing one of her student's functional knowledge. The student will be provided with the access supports that he typically uses (large print and high contrast materials); however, he will not be provided with scaffolds such as models or prompts.


Barriers are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines:

Text-to-speech (TtS) software is an assistive technology that reads any digital text aloud.
A type of test intended to evaluate and document what students have learned; the term is used to distinguish such tests from formative tests, which are used primarily to diagnose what students have learned in order to plan further instruction.

Image description: This avatar is a digital image of a young girl with ribbons in her hair.
The teacher wanted to adapt an assessment item to make it more accessible for his student. However, he realized that identifying the symbols for a math calculation problem is a construct relevant change to the assessment item.

Kokopelli and Kokopelli Mana as depicted by the Hopi

Source: Adopted from: Madaus, G., Russell, M. & Higgins, J. (2009). The paradoxes of high stakes testing: How they affect students, their parents, teachers, principals, schools and society. Information Age Publishing, Inc.: Charlotte, NC.

Kokopelli petroglyph located on BLM land near Embudo, New Mexico

Refers to the factors (e.g. mode of presentation or response) that are relevant (related) to the construct that the test is intended to measure.

"World's Largest Kokopelli", Camp Verde, Arizona Kokopele

The UDL framework can be applied to all aspects of the curriculum in order to decrease barriers and increase opportunities for learning.

1. Goals and milestones for instruction

Since the student was not able to decode the text, he was not able to access the meaning or to fully participate in the class discussion.

2. Media and materials to be used by students

Changing the font size and increasing the sizing of images helped the student to see the math item more clearly; this change was construct irrelevant to the math skills being assessed by the item.

3. Specific instructional methods

An approach to teaching that includes various approaches to content, process, and product in order to meet the needs of student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.