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Culturally competent care can only occur when culture care values are known and serve as the foundation for meaningful care.

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LeiningerFoundressTranscultural Nursing SocietyJuly 13, 1925-August 10, 2012
If you don’t know that Antarctica has not responded to the increase in CO₂ and shows no warming for the past 200 years, and has been cooling for at least 2000 years, perhaps you should change your nickname. This is the reason polar amplification became Arctic amplification.

How language change sneaks in | Linguistic Society of …

Influences onprimary teachers’ practice: Some problems for curriculum changes theory.
Orbital insolation is now virtually flat, so the main natural change controlling climate, apart from the odd volcanic eruption, is solar variability. So, what has the Sun been doing? A re-evaluation of sunspot activity by Clette et al in 2014 showed that solar output (the 11 year sunspot cycle) peaked in the 1780s, the 1860s, and around 1980-90, with basically no difference between these periods. That makes it difficult to call on solar activity to explain the rise in temperature since 1900. Instead we need to invoke some other forcing factor, the logical culprit being the exponential rise in greenhouse gas emissions since 1750. Furthermore, temperature has gone on rising, consistent with greenhouse gas emissions, while sunspot activity has fallen sharply since 1990.


28/12/2017 · Social change: Social change, in ..

“Certain energy policies that are doubtful to have any effect on climate change could make us less able to adapt.”
As evidence for this hypothesis, the GSL cite 3 sudden global warming events associated with increases in atmospheric carbon, occurring at 55Ma (Paleocene-Eocene boundary), 120Ma (Early Cretaceous, Aptian) and 183Ma (Early Jurassic), but only describe the 55Ma event. The GSL state the 55Ma Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ‘was perhaps triggered by volcanic activity superimposed on an underlying gradual global warming trend’ associated with the opening of the North Atlantic (Polar Scientist in comments).

So the hypothsis is:
– Rifting and rapid sea-floor spreading = increasing CO2 and temperature (associated with volcanism).
– Slower spreading and continental uplift = decreasing CO2 and temperature (associated with chemical weathering and carbonates).

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Great comments ralfellis, I always wondered why no one ever seemed to think about measuring downward IR fluxes, this after all being the key prediction of the increased CO2 greenhouse theory. What else would you spend your climate research money on? The fact that there actually appears to be no measurable increase is pretty much the nail in the coffin. Also agree, it’s always necessary to disentangle the biological from the climatic effects of CO2 – the former is known and proven and the latter is highly speculative yet the former gets ignored. Thanks again!

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It has been assumed that LGM tropical treelines are controlled by temperature. But the treelines are strangely low, meaning much lower high-altitude temperatures than expected, and therefore much higher lapse rates than expected. And these high lapse rates translate into a dryer LGM climate. And this data is used in LGM climate models and present climate models.

Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and …

Low CO2 is detrimental to plant life, especially at arid high altitude locations like the Gobi. The low CO2 conditions at the LGM caused huge CO2 deserts to form across the Gobi region, and therfore greatly increased dust, which settled on the northern ice sheets causing lower ice sheet albedo and increased insolation absorption. This change in albedo is orders of magnitude more powerful as a feedback agent than CO2, when measured locally, and this change caused rapid melting and an interglacial.

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Let’s have another look at Fig 1 in Pan, W. et al. 2002. this figure records the presence of a winter tropopause at an elevation of 8km at the South Pole. The vertical temperature profile in May and June clearly shows that, above the surface inversion layer associated with the radiative cooling of the ice surface, there is a fall in temperature as height increases, a standard feature of a troposphere, namely a vertical lapse rate.