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Sumerian or Sumerians may refer to: Sumer, an ancient civilization; Sumerian language, their language; Sumerian art; Sumerian architecture; Sumerian literature

Sumeria y Los Anunnaki - Sumer and The Anunnaki

Civilization - New World Encyclopedia

Back to civilizations The Sumerian people represent a civilization in Civilization VI
Inscription carved in stone: "Ur-Namma, the king of Ur, he who built the temple of Nanna" refers to the great ziggurat at Ur. When this inscription was written, Ur-Namma was just the king of Ur. He had not yet become the king of Sumer and Akkad.

The necessity of having to irrigate large tracts of non-arable land seems to be what first compelled the Sumerians to invent their modern society. This required a division of labor under the direction of a central authority (government). It also necessitated a means to pay for the project (taxation, i.e., “donations” of grain, sheep, cattle, dry goods, etc.) and a method to record these payments, which required the invention of writing. The land had to be allotted to different citizens, the water rights managed, and the surplus food distributed to the people.

Once a large labor force was mobilized, construction on a monumental scale soon followed (such as palaces, great temples, and city walls), along with the manufacture of the other necessities of civilization (tools, clothing, weapons, luxury goods, artistic works, and so on). The early administrative systems were centered at the temples, each ruled by a high priest. Later, when the city-states became more powerful and competitive, the government was controlled by a king (, meaning “man-great”) who could also command large armies.

Sumerian kings modeled themselves on the ideal of a shepherd. The "shepherd kings"
were crucial to the success of Sumer. You cannot understand the Sumerian civilization until you understand the shepherd kings. See on this website.

The Sumerians’ singlehanded invention of civilization, theirremarkable achievements in science, and their lasting influence on the modernworld, is all the more extraordinary
when you consider the fact that Sumer,even at its widest extent, was smaller than the
state of Connecticut.

Sumerian Gods and Goddesses - Anunnaki - Crystalinks


Gudea, the ruler of Lagash. His crown is a shepherd's hat.

Sumerian civilization arose in the fertile region of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the 5th millennium BC. (the word means “between
the rivers”). Because the Sumerians seemed to have appeared so suddenly on the scene, and because their language is unrelated to other languages of the region (or to any language in the world, then or now) it was originally believed that they were foreign invaders who subjugated the indigenous people already living there. This, however, seems unlikely. It was very difficult for conquerors to impose their language on a native people, and it’s doubtful that the Sumerians could last for thousands of years, through every kind of vicissitude, if they had forced their civilization on an unwilling population. The Sumerians were probably a nomadic people who decided to settle in this region and become farmers. No one knows where they came from. Theories range from India, Caucasia, Iran, Africa, Turkistan, Tibet (?!), you name it. After years of academic debate, no definitive conclusion has been reached. However, it seems the Sumerians were distinct from the Semitic neighbors that surrounded them (the Akkadians, Elamites (Iranians), Gutians, Hamazi, etc.). It's highly improbable that the Sumerians were ethnically the same as their neighbors and yet speak a language that is completely different. Not only was their language different, but their statues and portraits suggest the Sumerians were Caucasians, who originated from the area around the Caspian Sea. The Semites, on the other hand, originated from the Arab Peninsula. Remarkably, the Sumerians were later able to maintain their ethno-cultural identity during two centuries of Akkadian domination (2350 – 2150 B.C.) after they were conquered by Sargon the Great. During that time it would have been so easy for the Sumerians to be assimilated, to “blend back in”, if they were like their neighbors. Instead, they regained their independence and began the Neo-Sumerian Revival, the ultimate expression of Sumerian civilization.

 

A brief introduction to the Sumerians - Sumerian …


Sumer and Akkad not only had to contend with each other, they also had to deal with the Gutians and the Elamites, their foreign enemies to the north and northeast. The Gutians were nomadic tribesmen from the Zagros Mountains. They were barbarian warriors who didn't want to govern an empire; they were far more interested in looting and sacking cities. The Elamites were a bit more civilized (though still barbarians in the eyes of the Sumerians) who originated in the area now known as Iran. They often conquered parts of Sumer and Akkad, and they would later be instrumental in the final destruction of Sumerian civilization. The many wars in this region, between the Sumerians, Akkadians, Gutians, and Elamites, along with the Hamazi and others, prompted the writer of to ask, “Then who was the king? Who was not the king?"


Artist reconstruction of the city of Ur, by Balage Balogh. A Sumerian tablet, written with a kind of worldly discontent, speaks of "the city, where the tumult of man is." In one of the first cities of the world, someone was already complaining about the hustle and bustle of city life.

The Sumerians also invented the more fundamental aspects of civilization: writing, arithmetic, geometry, monumental architecture, irrigation systems and large scale farming (mono-crops), sewage systems, schools, dictionaries, literature, realistic human portraiture, business accounting, the division of labor, and professional armies.


Drought May Have Killed Sumerian Language - Yahoo

Nimrod, son of Cush, son of Ham, the second son ofNoah, has been recognized in Hebrew scripture as a ‘mighty man’. The varioustribal families were spreading across the Mesopotamian delta and were ripe fora strong leader or ruler to synthesize their tribalistic spirit into anationalistic unity. Kish, the city of Cush, is recognized as the firstcity-state with Kish as its ruler. It was then, according to ancient Sumeriantablets that kingship was lowered down from heaven and that civilization wastaught to mankind by the “gods”.

Sumer - Ancient History Encyclopedia

In 2150 B.C. the Akkadian Empire was destroyed by the Gutians, who also conquered many parts of Sumer. The Sumerians rose up in rebellion under the leadership of Utu-hengal, the king whose city of Uruk was also to be destroyed by the Gutians. Thus the Sumerians’ desire for independence, which had been smoldering beneath the surface for 200 years, was again rekindled. Utu-hengal defeated the Gutians and captured their king, Tirigan. Utu-hengal died seven years later (under mysterious circumstances). The Sumerian battle standard was then passed to Ur-Namma, the king of Ur. He went on to gain more victories against the Gutians. He also united the Sumerian cities into a single nation and he later reconquered Akkad. So once again the nations were united, except this time the roles were reversed; now the Sumerians were the rulers and the Akkadians were the vassals. Like a phoenix, Sumer had risen from the ashes. Now began the Neo-Sumerian Revival, the apex of Sumerian civilization.

The most important kings of the Neo-Sumerian Revival were Gudea, Ur-Namma, and his son Shulgi. The histories of Gudea and Ur-Namma are given elsewhere on this website. Shulgi began his reign with a punitive expedition against Gutium after his father was killed in combat in yet another battle with the Gutians. For the next twenty years he reigned in relative peace. At some point during his reign he stopped calling himself “The King of Sumer and Akkad”, the title his father had used, and began to use the appellation of "King of the Four Quarters [of the World]". This was the title used by Sargon the Great and his successors in the Akkadian Empire. It suggests that Shulgi began to have imperial ambitions. The second half of his reign is marked by several wars with foreign enemies, which necessitated the building of a defensive wall around the borders. Despite this, he gave the Sumerian people 47 years of unparalleled prosperity and he also continued the artistic renaissance that had begun with the reign of Gudea.