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I started to wonder about the truth between the real differences of Asian and Western philosophies of critical thinking....

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Critical thinking, questioning and student engagement …

“No single definition of critical thinking is widely accepted”, is what Jane S.
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Educator Diane Halpern’s definition, “Critical thinking is the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a positive outcome.” Critical thinking is used to describe thinking that is purposeful, reasoned, and is goal directed - the kind of thinking involved in problem solving, formulating inferences, calculating l...

Arts of China Consortium: fellowships and grants

This paper will discuss the definition of critical thinking, and the skills it takes to think critically.
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Having been born and developed from a family with all its members being University instructors and professors, I was often involved in arguments related to the lack of critical thinking in Asian cultures.


Kupperman, Learning from Asian ..

It will also present a personal definition of critical thinking and decision-making from the author of this paper.
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The third negative claim Oruka aimed to challenge pertains to thephilosophical status of indigenous African thought. Ethnophilosophyhad falsely popularized the view that traditional Africa was a placeof philosophical unanimity and that African traditions encouragedunanimity regarding beliefs and values. If this were true it wouldallow no room for individual thinkers like, say, Socrates orDescartes, with their own independent views on such matters. Oruka wasconcerned that African intellectuals were drawn into this falseassumption regarding the intellectual inclination of African people,maintaining the belief that critique is absent from indigenous Africanthought. This situation was worsened by the new political movements ofpostindependence African nations where one-party political systemssprang up. By outlawing opposition politics as being both unAfricanand antinationalist, political leaders often appealed to this view ofunanimity. The Sage Philosophy project objected to this claimregarding unanimity in Africa, which Oruka regarded as absurd, bypresenting empirical evidence of the diversity of thought amongindigenous thinkers. Oruka insisted that, while rulers everywhere willalways crave unanimity, thinkers thrive in dialogue and diversity ofopinion. He pointed out that Sage philosophy was about thinkers, notrulers.

Asian Philosophies of Critical Thinking The research question of this extended essay came across at a very early stage in my life. Having been born and developed from a family with all its members being University instructors and professors, I was often involved in arguments related to the lack of critical thinking in Asian cultures.
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Indeed, many African philosophers look far beyond the traditionalphilosophical texts for sources and subject matter of philosophicalreflection. For example, while engaging in subtle analyticphilosophical reflections, African philosophers incorporate with greatease narratives from everyday lives and from literature into theirreflections of the philosophical implications of their culturalevents. Oruka was especially wary of the sub-group among professionalAfrican philosophers whose position regarding African traditionalmodes of thought was analogous to European bias in denying reason toAfricans in their traditional settings. It was this attitude,according to Oruka, that amounted to a claim that Africans lacked atradition of organized systematic philosophical reflections on thethoughts, beliefs, and practices of their own people. He thought thatthis view was exemplified in its most eloquent and strongest form byPeter Bodunrin. In his (Oruka’s) own estimation, Bodunrin hadseriously underestimated the central point in the long tradition ofWestern scholarship, popularized by the works of Lévy-Bruhl,that denied Africans not only the existence of organized systematicphilosophical reflection, but reason itself. Oruka thought that thisview was rather absurd, for no society of humans can live for anyreasonable amount of time, let alone making any advances in their ownways of seeing and doing things, if they do not have reason, or if theideas and concepts upon which their cultures are built do not makesense. If, on the other hand, critics of African Sage philosophy basedtheir refutation of the possibility of sage philosophy on the lack ofwritten philosophical treatises, Oruka countered such a position byarguing that to exist as a philosopher it is not necessary that one’sthoughts must be written, or that they must progress — meaningthat they must be commented on or even be available to futuregenerations. While systematicity is important to the structure andconsistency of good thinking, neither it nor preservation of thoughtnecessarily requires literacy. Preservation in particular, he thought,was done selectively by generations for divers emerging reasons andcircumstances, and so was not, in and of itself, the measure of thephilosophical quality of someone’s thoughts. For just as thoughts canbe expressed either in writing, or as unwritten oral reflections,e.g., sayings and argumentations of sages, so they may be preservedfor a long time by sages, or quickly forgotten and cast intohistorically insignificant bits of a community’s past, only to beremembered by the few whom they touched in some special way.

classical Asian philosophies may be ..

An important influence on material ecocriticism, the philosophical book introduces “agential realism” as a conceptual way to understand the intra-actions of the material world beyond anthropocentric thinking.