• What are some examples of egoism disguised as altruism
  • Egoism and Emotion : A Sentimentalist Theory of the …
  • Egoism - Medical Ethics

Personal Egoism: The view that I ought always to act so as to produce the greatest good for myself but I do not say what others should do.

Egoism is considered every time we make an ethical decision

I know it might sound weird but ethics and egoism go hand-in-hand

Utilitarianism mainly focuses on the possible consequences of a decision....
Classical utilitarianism is a normative ethical theory which holds that an action can only be considered as morally right where its consequences bring about the greatest amount of good to the greatest number (where 'good' is equal to pleasure minus pain).

The Representation of Altruistic and Egoistic Motivations in ..

Mill analyzes utilitarianism on the same level but adds a different twist to the theory....
John Stuart Mill opens his utilitarian postulation by asserting that ethical statements cannot be subjected to scientific or mathematical provability (West 23)....


the problem with egoistic theories is that what ..

I will begin my paper by defining the ethical theory of utilitarianism, preference and hedonistic utilitarianism, lay out the innocent bystander objection and provide support....

These two perspectives will be interpreted by taking Mill's utilitarianism as an example of the former and Kant's categorical imperative as an example of the latter....

utilitarianism is an egoistic theory

Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, is a country whose people have experienced environmental problems because foreign multinationals are allowed to operate their businesses while committing human rights violations....

EGOISTIC THEORY OF DREAMS synonyms, another …

One of these theories is known as utilitarianism and it refers to a model that supposes an action is only right if it brings out greater happiness to the largest number of people.

What is another word for egoistic theory of dreams

However, the meaning of these topics as they relate to business organizations and business ethics need to be explored and more importantly, a discussion is necessary of how these topics interact or correlate with one another....

Egoism, Relativism, and Other Theoretical Distractions

Asking questions and surveying individuals in the medical field, businesses, colleges, and other areas will provide useful information about the impact and influence of ethical conduct.

In a broad use of the term any system might be called egoistic ..

It is an affectation, indeed, not very common among merchants, and very few words need be employed in dissuading them from it."

But the ethical egoist misunderstands the point of Mill's and Smith's reasoning. Consider the point of the argument. We shouldn't act to further the interest of others because this will not, in fact, further their interest. The best way to further the interests of others is to follow our own self interest. But, this is the opposite conclusion from what the egoist means to draw. The egoists concern is not furthering the interests of others at all. So, why should they care that pursuing one's own interest is the best way to help others? Adam Smith's point was simply that we can help others better by pursuing our self interest and since we should be concerned to help others we should pursue our self interest. No ethical egoist would make such an argument.

A second argument for ethical egoism was put forward by the 20th century philosopher Ayn Rand. She was famous for her novels celebrating self interest and free market capitalism such as Atlas Shrugged and The Fountainhead. Her basic line of reasoning is that altruism is basically self destructive of our most important possession; our selves. The supreme value is the individual's own existence and since we have only one life to live it is immoral to ask one to sacrifice this life for the sake of others.

One problem with this line of reasoning is that it presupposes that there are only two options. As we discussed in the lecture on psychological egoism, being concerned about the welfare of others is not necessarily at odds with being concerned with oneself. From Rand's perspective it seems that the only way to express concern for others is to completely sacrifice one's welfare. This, of course, is not necessary.

A third argument for ethical egoism is that it is really compatible with our common sense moral intuitions. According to this view egoism is the best theory to explain the duties we have to others such as the duty not to harm others, not to lie, and to keep our promises. In each case the main argument for having these duties is that it is in our best interest.

But, ethical egoism also fails here because it cannot demonstrate that it is always in our best interest not to lie or harm others. And, of course, from the perspective of the egoist, if it is in fact in our best interest to lie or harm others this is exactly what we should do. So, it appears that ethical egoism is not always in line with our common sense notions of morality. Also, egoism doesn't seem to be able to explain the fundamental reason why certain actions are right to do. As Rachels points out, egoism cannot adequately explain why it is morally right to contribute money to help people who are suffering from famine. This seems like a good example of something common sense would tell us is morally correct. But, ethical egoism couldn't explain why. Clearly, the answer does not exclusively, if at all, involve our self interest. The main reason we should contribute money is to help starving people!

Another possible argument against ethical egoism is that it is unacceptably arbitrary. Ethical egoism maintains that only my interests count and I should act to further those interests. But what makes me so different from everyone else? Why am I so special? If you think about it you discover that there's no good reason for singling one person out as better or more special. We're all basically the same in our desire for happiness and our right to be treated with respect and dignity. Unless there are any relevant differences between ourselves and everyone else we cannot justify different treatment. If my desire for happiness should be fulfilled and if my basic needs should be met so too should everyone else's. There's no good argument for disregarding the interests of others. This seems to be a solid argument against ethical egoism and should encourage us to seek out a theory which addresses the welfare of others. One example of just such an ethical theory is utilitarianism which we'll consider in the next section.