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Gender definition, either the male or female division of a species, especially as differentiated by social and cultural roles and behavior: the feminine gender. See more.

Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide

GEOGRAPHY - TACOMA - University of Washington

Core List of Journals for Women and Gender Studies ..
Join Dr. Van Brunt as he addresses these concepts from the framework of Sue’s (2010) microaggressions and the potential biases and blind spots teams encounter when working with those who are culturally different from the majority population. Special attention will be given to issues of sexual identity, as well as mental illness. The program will include a discussion of the cultural limitations related to psychological and threat assessment.

We Still Haven't Figured Out Cultural Gender …

17/12/2010 · In Navajo Cultural Constructions of Gender and Sexuality, Wesley Thomas discusses Navajo gender systems, gender …
The facilitation of social interaction and social bonding is, as noted elsewhere in this review, one of the main functions of drinking itself - the perception of the "value of alcohol for promoting relaxation and sociability" being one of the most significant generalisations to emerge from the cross-cultural study of drinking (Heath, 1987, 1995). It is not surprising therefore, that the drinking-place should be, in many cultures, an institution dedicated to sociability and convivial interaction.


What Causes Gender Inequality? -- Robert Max Jackson

These primary functions of the drinking-place - the provision of a ‘liminal sphere’, ‘time-out’, alternative constructions of reality, symbolic punctuation marks, etc. - are among those frequently attributed to drinking itself (Gusfield, 1987; Mandelbaum, 1965; Douglas, 1987). The drinking-place is the physical manifestation of the cultural meanings and roles of alcohol.

Although Gusfield’s analysis applies - and is intended to apply - only to a particular culture, he poses perhaps the most important general question on the use of alcohol in transitional rituals: he asks "Why alcohol?". Gusfield’s concern is specifically to discover "What is the content of the message conveyed by drinking that makes it a fit object to symbolize and ritualize the transition from work to play?", but one could equally expand his question to cover any of the transitions marked by rites of passage. Why is alcohol an essential element of these rituals in so many very different cultures?

Gender Place and Memory 1400-1900

The characteristics outlined above are, of course, broad generalisations, and in any modern, complex culture there will be a wide variety of drinking-places. Indeed, cataloguing, classifying and comparing the different types of drinking-place in a given society, their decor, clientele and other distinguishing features, has become a favourite pastime among social scientists (Campbell, 1991; Fox, 1993, 1996; Gilbert, 1985; Pujol, 1989). This variety will inevitably include some exceptions to the generic type - the introduction of the ‘café-bar concept’ by British pub-operators, for example, or imitations of cosy, insular ‘Irish pubs’ in France and Italy, or the Latin-style drinking-places established by Cubans and other Hispanics in Florida - but the majority of drinking-places still tend to exhibit at least some of the basic features dictated by cultural perceptions of alcohol.

PSYCHOLOGY - TACOMA - University of Washington

Despite the inevitable lack of coherence in the available literature, some significant general conclusions can be drawn from the existing research in this area. First, as noted above, it is clear that where there is alcohol, there is almost always a dedicated environment in which to drink it, and that every culture creates its own, highly distinctive, public drinking-places. Second, the drinking-place is usually a special environment: it represents a separate sphere of existence, a discrete social world with its own laws, customs and values. Third, drinking-places tend to be socially integrative, classless environments, or at least environments in which status distinctions are based on different criteria from those operating in the outside world. Finally, the primary function of drinking-places, in almost all cultures, appears to be the facilitation of social interaction and social bonding.

Ursula K. Le Guin on Being a Man – Brain Pickings

The qualitative consonance between drinking and transitional rites is not limited to the purely cultural, symbolic attributes of alcohol, but extends to its intrinsic pharmacological properties. The fact that alcohol is an intoxicating substance, capable of inducing ‘altered states of consciousness’ (Rudgley, 1994) is the foundation of its association with ‘liminal’ states, settings and events. The segregation of one phase of life from another makes the passage between them a liminal period - an in-between, ambiguous, indeterminate state (Van Gennep, 1960; Turner, 1977; Gusfield, 1987; Stewart, 1992). That alcohol should be an integral element of the ritualisation of such liminal transitions is psychologically appropriate: the experience of intoxication mirrors the experience of rites of passage.