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Prime minister: Prime minister, the head of government in a country with a parliamentary or semipresidential political system

Prime Ministerial Power in 22 Countries, 1980-2000 ICPSR

Gendering Prime-Ministerial Power - Oxford Scholarship

The Prime Minister of India is the head of union government and has the responsibility ..
This study offers a measure of prime ministerial power to set government policy in 22 countries with established parliamentary democracies. The collection comprises variables relating to the power of prime ministers including an index of prime ministerial power, which consists of a quantitative score of the power of individually named prime ministers in their different terms based on an expert survey conducted in 2001-2003. The expert survey included questions in regard to the prime minister's degree of freedom in selecting cabinet ministers, moving or removing the cabinet ministers, and calling an election when desired. In addition, respondents were queried about the prime minister's ability to influence the cabinet agenda and the policy output of the current government, and the degree of government control over the parliament agenda. Additional variables in the data examined the political and institutional resources available to the prime ministers, of which the following topics were explored: the composition of the cabinet and prime minister's party, rate of government survival, strength of prime minister's party in the parliament, impact of the opposition party on policy, score of leadership influence, policy diversity in government, and government's ideological complexion.

Role and power of the prime minister ..

However the power that a prime minister has over his or her cabinet ..
(1) Prime ministerial terms of office for 22 parliamentary democracies. The data is time limited to those prime ministerial terms between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1999, for most countries. For countries with more than 7 ministerial terms in the 20 year time span, only the 7 most recent prime ministerial terms are included. (2) Experts were selected for participation utilizing a number of criteria and sources, with the aim to contact the universe of political scientists in each of the 22 countries with an established parliamentary democracy who study that country's executive or policy-making process. Out of the 413 expert surveys that were mailed, 249 completed expert survey responses were obtained. For more detailed information about sampling please refer to: O'Malley, Eoin. 2007. The Power of Prime Ministers: Results of an Expert Survey. International Political Science Review, 28(1): 7-27.


What are the sources of prime ministerial power

An ageing power station is in the spotlight as the Prime Minister tries to stop it closing in 2022
The data were sourced from editions of the European Journal of Political Research (EJPR) Political Data Yearbook, from various journal articles and books, and from an unpublished work. For further information about the data, please refer to the "Codebook for data on Prime ministerial power and its causes" section of the ICPSR codebook for a description of each variable and its source.

The "Expert Survey on Prime Ministers in Established Parliamentary Democracies" for the Netherlands has been provided in the ICPSR codebook. The variables pertaining to the questions asked in the expert survey are indicated in navy text in the "Codebook for data on Prime ministerial power and its causes".

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Variables PARTYLAB and PMSPARTY have the same variable label; PMSPARTY does not appear in the "Codebook for data on Prime ministerial power and its causes."

Minister (government) - Wikipedia

This chapter examines the records of five female prime ministers: Margaret Thatcher (United Kingdom), Kim Campbell (Canada), Jenny Shipley (New Zealand), Helen Clark (New Zealand) and Julia Gillard (Australia). These case studies illuminate what the study of male leaders alone conceals—namely, how gender shapes prime-ministerial power by affecting the institutions, ideology, and development of Anglo systems. Gender-based norms become embedded in institutions and ideas, and gender provides a lens that filters leadership traits and determines their value. The more adversarial the system, the more masculinist its norms and expectations of executive leadership tend to be. Female leaders in adversarial, Anglo systems often need to develop styles and strategies that show they are capable of being tough enough for the job. If they introduce a different approach to leadership, they might well appear too weak to lead.


O'Malley, Eoin. 2005. Give Them Awkward Choices: The operation of prime ministerial power. Unpublished PhD, Department of Political Science, Trinity College, Dublin.