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This also protects the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms.

Water properties: The water in you (Water Science …

5 Dimension 3: Disciplinary Core Ideas - Physical …

Water properties: The water in you. From USGS's Water Science School water site.
Manganese compounds are produced from manganese ores or from manganese metal. Metallic manganese (ferromanganese) is used principally in steel production along with cast iron and superalloys to improve hardness, stiffness, and strength (NAS, 1973; US EPA, 1984; HSDB, 1998). The predominant portion (approximately 90%) of manganese is processed into ferromanganese in blast furnaces (Schiele, 1991). Manganese compounds have a variety of uses. Manganese dioxide is commonly used in the production of dry-cell batteries, matches, fireworks, porcelain and glass-bonding materials, and amethyst glass; it is also used as the starting material for the production of other manganese compounds (NAS, 1973; Venugopal & Luckey, 1978; US EPA, 1984). Manganese chloride is used as a precursor for other manganese compounds, as a catalyst in the chlorination of organic compounds, in animal feed to supply essential trace minerals, and in dry-cell batteries (US EPA, 1984; HSDB, 1998). Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) is used primarily as a fertilizer and as a livestock supplement; it is also used in some glazes, varnishes, ceramics, and fungicides (Windholz, 1983; US EPA, 1984; HSDB, 1998). Maneb (manganese ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate) is used as a broad-spectrum contact fungicide and is also used for seed treatment of small grains such as wheat. Maneb is therefore a potential source of manganese in soil and plants (Ferraz et al., 1988; Ruijten et al., 1994). Potassium permanganate is used as an oxidizing agent, disinfectant, and antialgal agent; for metal cleaning, tanning, and bleaching; as a purifier in water and waste treatment plants; and as a preservative for fresh flowers and fruits (HSDB, 1998). The organomanganese compound MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline, is produced by the addition of molten sodium metal to methylcyclopentadiene to give methylcyclopentadienylsodium. Anhydrous manganese dichloride is then added to afford methylcyclopentadienylmanganese, which is subsequently reacted with carbon monoxide to give MMT (NAS, 1973; US EPA, 1984; Sax & Lewis, 1987; HSDB, 1998; Kirk & Othmer, 2001). MMT has been approved for use in Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, the USA, France, and the Russian Federation and has been conditionally approved for use in New Zealand (Zayed et al., 1999; Zayed, 2001); more recently, Ethyl Corp. (a major producer of MMT) noted that MMT is now sold in 25 countries (Kaiser, 2003).

Core Idea PS1: Matter and Its Interactions

Each element has characteristic chemical properties. The periodic table, a systematic representation of known elements, is organized horizontally by increasing atomic number and vertically by families of elements with related chemical properties. The development of the periodic table (which occurred well before atomic substructure was understood) was a major advance, as its patterns suggested and led to the identification of additional elements with particular properties. Moreover, the table’s patterns are now recognized as related to the atom’s outermost electron patterns, which play an important role in explaining chemical reactivity and bond formation, and the periodic table continues to be a useful way to organize this information.


PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

Because of this, warm water floats on the surface of lakes, rivers and the oceans insulating the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms.

Nitrogen is also similar to oxygen in its ability to bond with several hydrogen atoms; a neutral nitrogen atom has seven electrons.


Chlorine – used to purify drinking water

Calcium – found in chalk, limestone and hydrite.

Arsenic – used as medicines and also in making special glass and semi – conductors.

Antimony – used for production of bells and metal type.

Other Elements

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Elements Essential to Living Organisms

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Kharren Babes Tuliao
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Dorothy Lizette Abeleda

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There are 92 elements which occur naturally. Out of these there are 26 of which living things are composed.

Glossary - PBS: Public Broadcasting Service

DNA, as you probably know, is the most famous of the biopolymers owing to its central role in defining the structure and function of all living organisms.

Manganese And Its Compounds:Environmental Aspects …

And then we come to H2O, and are shocked to find that many of these predictions are way off, and that water (and by implication, life itself) should not even exist on our planet! But we soon learn that this tiny combination of three nuclei and eight electrons possesses special properties that make it unique among the more than 15 million chemical species we presently know. When we stop to ponder the consequences of this, chemistry moves from being an arcane science to a voyage of wonder and pleasure as we learn to relate the microscopic world of the atom to the greater world in which we all live.

Glossary – PBS: Public Broadcasting Service

Water is a very important for living organisms because of its solvent properties and because it remains a liquid over a large range of temperatures.

Water and hydrogen bonding - Chem1

In the laboratory, microorganisms have been shown to transform both soluble and solid manganese; thus, they potentially have substantial effects on local manganese cycles. Physiological, biochemical, and structural studies of manganese oxidizers and reducers in the laboratory form the basis on which models of the participation of microorganisms in the cycling of manganese have been proposed. Field analyses of the distribution of manganese oxidizers and reducers, structural properties of manganese precipitates, and activity measurements support the hypothesis that microorganisms play an integral role in the cycling of manganese in some environments (Nealson, 1983). Microbial oxidation of Mn(II) occurs at rates up to 5 orders of magnitude greater than those of abiotic Mn(II) oxidation (Tebo, 1991). Johnson et al. (1995) found that microbial catalysis was overwhelmingly responsible for manganese oxidation in the lower epilimnion of a freshwater dam during the summer months. Microbial oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(IV) by spores of the marine sp. was observed by Bargar et al. (2000), whereas Stein et al. (2001) found three freshwater bacterial isolates capable of manganese oxidation. Elevated manganese levels on the carapace of crayfish () are thought to be the result of manganese-oxidizing bacteria forming biofilms (King et al., 1999). Nealson et al. (1991) isolated and identified manganese-reducing bacteria in the Black Sea. The major group of organisms isolated from the 80- to 90-m (manganese reduction) zone were in the genus . Microbially mediated reduction of complexed Mn(III) has also been observed in the laboratory (Kostka et al., 1995). Further studies have isolated manganese-reducing bacteria in marine sediments, oxic regions of lake water columns, and the rhizosphere of non-mycorrhizal plants (Posta et al., 1994; Bratina et al., 1998; Thamdrup et al., 2000).