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The Journey of Odysseus the aspect of a lasting impression of ideas and belief How to edit a research paper and Telemachos In The

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As a visionary leader, Washington also attracted both military and civilians to follow him to victory. He faced the realities of short term enlistments, desertions, very poorly clad and equipped soldiers, recalcitrant congressional and state legislators and wavering loyalty to the Glorious Cause among the populace. Yet enough soldiers and civilians so trusted him, believed in him, loved him that they stayed with him and his ideas.

People and ideas systems - Andrew Roberts

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The first aspect of Newton's argument, it seems, is to indicate thatmechanical explanations are predicated on referencing certain kinds ofqualities when investigating natural phenomena, and that thesequalities themselves are therefore not subject to mechanicalexplanation. For instance, since mechanist explanations—say, ofthe way in which magnets attract iron filings across atable—must refer to qualities such as the extension of thebodies subject to the explanations, then we cannot give a mechanistexplanation of extension itself. Of course, Leibniz might reply thatwe need not provide any explanation of the basic qualities of bodiesthat figure in mechanical explanations, for those properties have beenchosen by the “moderns” precisely because they areperfectly intelligible on their own, perhaps unlike various qualitiesattributed to “Scholastic” accounts of naturalphenomena. The second aspect of Newton's argument is moreintriguing—it also harks back to Locke's discussion withStillingfleet, for Locke had contended that God may have superaddednot only gravity to material bodies, but also the power of thought,linking them because he believed that neither could be renderedintelligible using any philosophical means at his disposal. That is,from Locke's point of view, we know that human beings—which are,or at least contain, material bodies with size, shape, motion andsolidity, along with parts characterized by those qualities—arecapable of thought, but since we cannot discern how any material thingcould possibly have that capacity, we conclude that God may havesuperadded that feature to us, or to our bodies. Thought and gravityare dis-analogous in the sense that we did not require anything likeNewton's theory to convince us that human beings can think, but theyare otherwise analogous. Newton then attempts to make the followingargument: since Leibniz would have to agree that thinking is not amechanical process, and not mechanically explicable, he must agreethat there is at least one aspect of the world that has the followingtwo features, (1) it is not mechanical; and, (2) it is clearly not tobe rejected on that ground alone. He attempts to likengravity (as he understands it) to thinking (as hebelieves Leibniz is required to understand it), arguing that despitethe fact that it is not mechanical—it cannot be explainedmechanically—it should not be rejected on that ground. Thisargument may be predicated on the view that human beings, materialthings, or at least partially material things, do the thinking, ratherthan immaterial things, such as minds or souls, for if one attributesall thought to an immaterial mind or soul, then there is no pressureto say that anything in nature, or perhaps even any aspect of anythingin nature, has a feature that cannot be mechanically explicated. Ifone accepts Locke's view (apparently also endorsed by Newton) that weshould attribute thinking to material things, or to aspects ofmaterial things, then perhaps Newton has successfully followed Lockein likening gravity to thought, thereby making room for aspects ofnature that are not mechanical after all. This vexing issue wouldcontinue to generate debates amongst Newton's and Leibniz's variousfollowers in England, and on the Continent, respectively.


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People and ideas systems As outlined by Andrew Roberts of Middlesex University, London
Many of Newton's readers in 1713 would have granted him the followinginference: although we do not have any perceptions of, say, theinterior of the earth, or even of many ordinary objects within ourgrasp, we can reasonably infer that everything with certain basicproperties—something akin to what John Locke, borrowing a termof Robert Boyle's, called the “primary qualities”—atthe macroscopic level is comprised of micro-particles that arecharacterized by those same basic properties. But at the end of hisgloss of Rule 3, Newton applies this same (or analogous) reasoning tothe force of gravity, arguing as follows: since we experience the factthat all bodies on or near the earth gravitate toward theearth—in cases such as free fall—and that the moongravitates toward the earth, etc., we can infer that all bodieseverywhere gravitate toward all other bodies. This argument wouldappear to suggest that gravity—which, as we have seen, is a kindof impressed force, an action—is somehow akin to qualities likeextension and impenetrability. So is Newton suggesting that gravity isactually a quality of all bodies? Leibniz and his followerspounced: if Newton is, at least tacitly, regarding gravity as aquality, then he had indeed revived the occult qualities of theScholastics, for here we have a quality that is not explicable inmechanical terms, and what is worse, one that is not intelligible tophilosophers. This question became the subject of intense debatethroughout the first half of the eighteenth century (see the lastsection below).

The difference between Locke and Hume might be that the former, unlikethe latter, nonetheless insisted that mechanism continued to providephilosophers with a canon for the intelligibility of causation withinnature (Hume's critique of earlier conceptions of causation, includingLocke's, is certainly well known). Hume also expended considerableeffort in interpreting some of the philosophical aspects orconsequences of Newton's theory of gravity and his correspondingunderstanding of the nature of matter. In particular, he wished toprovide what we would now call an empiricist interpretation ofNewton's three laws of motion, his concept of mass (quantity ofmatter), and his understanding of gravity; in the process, he does notshy away from interpreting Newton's sometimes confusing notion of thevis inertiae or force of inertia, which as we have seenabove, is not a kind of impressed force. This was particularlydifficult because Hume had already contended that strictly speaking,we have no idea (no representation) of force or power—these aremerely words employed by natural philosophers without any ideascorresponding to them. Thus he must find an interpretation of Newtonthat is not predicated on our ability to form an idea of forces orpowers. In a famous footnote in his Enquiry Concerning HumanUnderstanding, he writes (Hume 1777/1993: §vii.i note 2,48–49):

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Over its long history, Buddhism has left an indelible impact on Chinese civilization. Many words and phrases have root in a Buddhist origin. Take a colloquial phrase as an example, 'to hold the foot of Buddha at the moment" means "to make a last minute effort". This reveals in a sense the true attitude of the Chinese toward the utilitarian aspects of belief. Many people kowtow to whatever gods they encounter and will burn incense in any temple.

Organization: World Brain, by H.G

Secondly, the visionary leader is skillful in designing and creating an organizational culture which will make possible the attainment of the leader’s vision and ideas. In fact, creating this organizational culture may be the most lasting contribution of the leader for it will consist of the enduring values, vision and beliefs that are shared by members of the organization.