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Genealogy of Arab - Arab Historical Records

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Scientific studies of Pre-Islamic Arabs starts with the Arabists of the early 19th century ..
At an early date there was intercourse betweenIndia and the great empires of what is now called the Near East. Thefirst traces of this occurs in inscriptions of the Hittite kings ofCappadocia in the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries B.C. Those kingsbore Aryan names and worshipped Aryan deities, and apparently were akinto the Hindus of the Punjab. Blocks of Indian teak were used in thetemple of the Moon at Ur and in Nebuchadnezzar's palace, both of thesixth century B.C., and apes, Indian elephants, and Bactrian camelsfigure on the obelisk of Shalmanesar III (860 B.C.). These mayhave been brought by land or carried by sea. The makesallusions to voyages by sea, and many such allusions occur in Buddhistliterature, both of rather later date but bearing testimony to an oldtradition. Sea trade no doubt came from a port near the mouth of theIndus and passed to the Persian Gulf, coasting along Gedrosia. ThePersian Gulf was cleared of pirates by Sennacherib in 694 B.C., and itmay be assumed that the presence of pirates implies a sea trade whichincreased after the pirates disappeared. In the later seventh centuryit is said that the trade of the Persian Gulf was in the hands of thePhoenicians, who had settled in the marsh lands of the Tigris-Euphrates(Shatt el-Arab) after their earlier homes had been destroyed byearthquake (Justin, 18, 3, 2). Strabo refers to Phoeniciantemples on the Bahrein Islands near the mouth of the Persian Gulf(Strabo, 16, 3, 3-5), and remains of such temples have beenfound and explored.

The majority of these early Arabs were poor, uneducated and unskilled

Unification and transformation. A great amount of historic documents concerning early Arabs have been destroyed in Islamic times in order to annihilate the memory of the original background from which Islam emerged and how did it change the cultural features of the Arabs - so, it is not a surprising factor that they did likewise with the peoples …
A MAP of the physical features of Western Asiaand North-East Africa shows two important river valleys, one of theTigris an. d Euphrates, the other of the Nile, and between them highground, broken rather abruptly by the Red Sea. These conditions are dueto geological changes with which we are not at present directlyconcerned: we start from a point when the two great river valleysalready existed, with a good deal of barren highland between. Those twovalleys were the homes of two primitive civilizations, which was theearlier is still not decided. In both cases the rivers concernedoverflowed and flooded the surrounding country regularly every year,and the particular river-valley culture which grew up there was basedon the artificial control of these regular inundations, draining theswamps and directing the water so as to fertilize the fields. It iscommonly assumed that in primitive society land was held in common,each member of the tribe entitled to his share, but not to permanentownership of any particular piece. Whether this is universally true isdisputed, probably it does apply so long as tribes are nomadic. But inthe river-valley culture of Mesopotamia and Egypt the productivity ofeach field depended a great deal on human labour, irrigating anddraining the land, so that private ownership developed at a fairlyearly date and population became stationary. The people of the barrenhighlands between the river valleys remained nomads, not recognizingthe rights of private property and in all respects at a much moreprimitive stage of social evolution than the settled inhabitants of thevalleys. The life of those nomads was hard and bare, it generally was,and still is, on the border of starvation; there always was atemptation for those nomads to raid the fertile and productivesettlements, and when their numbers became too great to be able to makea living out of the meagre resources of the desert highlands, theytended to overflow into the valleys. Thus all through ancient historythe kingdoms of Assyria, Babylonia, and Egypt found their nomadicneighbours a perpetual nuisance, and it was always necessary to providefor the protection of the frontiers, those frontiers being the preciselevel at which it ceased to be practicable to raise the water from therivers to irrigate and fertilize the land. Whenever military power sofar decreased as to make the guardianship of the frontiers insufficientto protect the settled country from Arab raiders, then Arabs came downto raid the country, then to settle in the rich and productiveterritory and reap the benefits of a cultivation at others' expense,usually subjugating and sometimes enslaving the unwarlike populationalready settled there.

 

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Today we are going to take a look at some early Scottish history – very early! The Picts, from the Latin word for “painted”, presumed to be in reference to their body art such as tattoos, were an indigenous tribal race living in Scotland during the late Iron Age and Early Celtic Medieval periods. They are generally viewed as a mysterious and enigmatic group who have left very little other than their beautiful stone carvings behind for us to interpret. Researchers have never been able to decipher the limited amount of Pictish written language discovered, though it can be presumed they did speak and write Latin as well, due to their involvement with the early Christian church, but their own name for themselves remains unknown. Historical records describing the Picts have always been shown through another races perspective, and despite recent discoveries implying that up to 10% of all Scottish born men are directly descended from the Picts much remains unknown about them – although more is now coming to light about their art, culture and religion.


The history of Greek medicine proper beginswith Hippocrates, of Cos, who died in 257 B.C., and his "Aphorisms"always remained a leading text-book for practitioners. This collectionof aphorisms was amongst the early medical works translated into Arabicby Hunayn ibn Ishaq, who was able to use the Greek text. There is ananonymous Syriac translation which has been published by Pognon(Leipzig, 1903), but its date does not appear.


between the Mesopotamians and the early Arabs.

A flair for history is a prerequisite to understanding the Muslim world and its people. Their yesterdays are closely bound up with the here and now. A good grasp of geography will be helpful as well. Slavery in Early Islamic History: It was intriguing to note in Bernard Lewis' book, The Arabs in History, that paper was made first in China in the year 105 B.C. In A.D. 751, the Arabs defeated a Chinese contingent east of the 'Jaxartes'. (Jaxartes is a river that lies on the border between China and present-day Afghanistan. Persian King Cyrus was killed fighting near this river, about 500 B.C.) The Arabs found some Chinese paper makers among their prisoners. Many such skills were brought into the Islamic world in this way. The use of paper spread rapidly across the Islamic world, reaching Egypt by A.D. 800 and Spain by the year 900. From the tenth century onwards, evidence is clear of paper-making occurring in countries of the Middle East and North Africa, as well as in the European country of Spain.

Origin and Identity of the Arabs - Im Nin'alu


The Arabs profited from the craft of the paper makers they had captured as slaves. From archaeologists and records kept in ancient times, we learn that slave trade existed for a long time in the Arab world. Back in the days of the caliphs [early Muslim leaders], having a slave for a mother was not a stigma for a Muslim man. Due to polygamy, this was quite common. At first the caliphs maintained a kind of aristocracy among themselves, making it imperative that the mother of a caliph was from one of the Arab tribes. However, as more and more slaves adopted the religion of Islam, noble birth and tribal prestige lost their value. By the year 817, the Abbasid Caliphs and succeeding Muslim rulers often were the sons of slave women, many of whom were foreign. Such parentage ceased to be either an obstacle or a stigma.