• The "long count" is from the list of Dynasties in .
  • Northern Yen, , Dynasty, 409-436 (Chinese)
  • The Eras of the Sui Dynasty can be examined on a .

The doctrine explained and justified the demiseof the two earlier dynasties and at the same time supported thelegitimacy of present and future rulers.

The "short count" Chinese historical era is given in the [U.S.

The greatest Emperor of the Former Han Dynasty was probably Wu Ti.

Something else overlooked by Classical historians nevertheless turns up in Chinese history.
Piggot seems unaware of this and misrepresents historical meanings of "empire" by saying that "the term is strongly associated with a martial political formation founded on conquest -- consider the imperial states of Rome, Persia, and China." This is irrelevant since "founded on conquest" is the retrospective judgment of a historian that has nothing to do with the internal self-representation and ideology of "imperial states" like "Rome, Persia, and China." In each case, the distinctive self-description of imperial authority is its universality, which, for instance, we see explicitly, with respect to the , in the statement of a legal text of 1230, the (Saxon Mirror), that the Crown of Rome makes the King of Germany (the ), [cf.

The Eras of the Former Han Dynasty can be examined on a .

One of the unique monuments of the Gupta dynasty is the Iron Pillar of Delhi, seen at right.
The Mongols conquered the Southern Song in 1276. Though the rulers in several of the previous dynasties had ancestry that was part-Chinese, part-nomadic tribe, the Yuan was the first dynasty where the Chinese themselves considered they were being ruled by foreigners. The language of government was Mongolian, and so were the majority of the highest officials. The Mongols conquered the Southern Song in 1276.

Kublai Khan, grandson of Ghenghis Khan, ruled China from 1260 to 1294. His advisors included Mongols and members of many other tribal peoples, and possibly even an Italian (Marco Polo), because Kublai Khan did not entirely trust the Han Chinese.


The Eras of the Later Han Dynasty can be examined on a .

The name "Carnatic" migrated south and south-east, with the movements of the Châlukya dynasts.
Even after a decade of economic stagnation in the 1990's, Japan remained the second largest economy in the world (about 40% the size of the United States, more than 1.7 times the size of Germany, and finally reviving a bit in 2004), although in per capita terms declining from 3rd in the world in 2003 to 11th in 2007 [, 2007 Edition].

Indeed, the first entry for "dynasty" in a modern Chinese dictionary is  [, A.P.
Thus, Romans who cared to think about the meaning of their situation, like the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, saw themselves embodying the moral ideal of the cosmopolis ("world state/city"), where citizenship is humanity and there is no difference between Greek (or Roman) and Barbarian.

The Eras of the Minor Han and Wei Dynasties can be examined on a .

This relatively brief episode then helped prepare the way for the Turkish conquest of the area, by which the universalism of fulfilled the long ambition, conceived by the first Caliphs, to seize and absorb the universality of Rûm, , itself.
Bryce's principle of universalist ideology, centering on Rome but extending to similar to ideas outside of the Roman world.

The Eras of the Six Southern Dynasties can be examined on a .

Far away from the mediterranean world, Confucian ideals of common humanity similarly produced the universalist ideology of classical China, where China, represented the world, or at least the universality authority of the Emperors, encompased everything , i.e.

The rulers of the Five Northern Dynasties are from the , by John E.

After Ivan III married a princess of the Dynasty and Ivan IV, the Terrible, conquered most of the remaining Mongol Khântes, the ruler of Russia was the Tsar (Caesar) and Autocrat (from Greek , used for the Latin ) of "All the Russias." This made the Tsar the special protector of all the Orthodox Churches, since the Russian Church itself owed its existence to Constantinople and nothing to the Pope in Rome.

The Eras of the T'ang Dynasty can be examined on a .

The Ming were aware of the other civilizations in the world, to an extent previous dynasties had not been. By being so rigid and conservative, by not learning from the Europeans and taking the best elements of other cultures and adapting them to China, the Ming rulers kept China from developing, and therefore weak and defenseless.