• April 4, 2016
  • The relationship between television exposure and …
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Media Effects on Children - International Encyclopedia …

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Research examining TV exposure has demonstrated associations, although not direct causal relationships, between heavy early screen exposure (more than 2 hours/day by infants younger than 12 months in one study) and significant language delays . Evidence of an association between screen time and attentional difficulties is mixed, with negative effects only clearly apparent when exposure is extremely high (i.e., more than 7 hours/day) . High exposure to background TV has been found to negatively affect language use and acquisition, attention, cognitive development and executive function in children younger than 5 years. It also reduces the amount and quality of parent–child interaction and distracts from play . While e-books have been shown to offer benefits with children’s reading engagement, parents appear to use fewer reading strategies during these interactions. Further, e-book sound effects and animation can interfere with story comprehension and event sequencing in preschoolers, when compared with paper books –.

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While reinforcing sedentary behaviours, commercial TV also exposes children to advertisements for unhealthy foods and encourages snacking, which increases overall food intake . A 2012 systematic review of TV watching and adverse dietary effects in children 2 to 6 years old found most studies reported negative effects with as little as 1 hour/day of viewing .


Adjudications and other outcomes - Australian Press …

(43)Are there any studies which have focused on health effectsassociated with community or environmental noise exposures?Several correlational field studies have examined health outcomesas a function of exposure to varying levels of traffic and aircraftnoise.

Recent evidence suggests an association between elevated levels of TV exposure at age 2 and self-reported victimization, social isolation, proactive aggression and anti-social behaviours in middle childhood . Excessive TV viewing (more than 2 hours/day) has been clearly associated with early childhood self-regulation difficulties . Such effects could be more pronounced in children with special behavioural needs, and self-perpetuating because parents are more likely to use screen media to pacify a child with challenging behaviours . Research shows that excessive levels of screen media exposure are associated more strongly with low levels of stimulation in the home and low parental involvement than with socioeconomic position .